Training And Development In Human Resource Management

Training and development are at the heart of every organization seeking continual growth and improvement. It is a process of learning provided to new and existing employees to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge, technical skills, and a productive attitude in order to be more effective in their jobs. In the world of highly competitive economies, the globalization of the market and the technological frenzy alone are not enough for organizations to be productive. Their survival and growth depend not only on the speed of their adaptation to new technological, economic, and counseling conditions but on the level of their human resource development as well.

One of the contributing factors related to increasing interest in workplace training is that the workplace is considered a multi million-dollar enterprise. Employees learn new skills designed to help them keep their organizations competitive in an increasingly global economic environment. In a study conducted by Workforce Economy (2001), it was reported that more than 90% of the companies observed provided a variety of management, leadership, and communication training to employees. The areas mainly covered included time management skills, problem-solving and decision-making skills, public speaking and presentation skills, training for management changes, and strategic planning.

It is worth noting that most roles in many organizations are solely occupied by individuals with tertiary education. It is believed that tertiary education equips one with the ability to more effectively think and solve problems. Even with this background, it is still necessary to only rely solely on their tertiary experience to execute the work after onboarding these kinds of employees into a company. Instead, we must continually give them refresher courses to sharpen their skills and stay abreast with modern ways of executing tasks. Having realized the importance of training and development in contemporary organizations, this write-up will address introducing a recent type of training and development dubbed the “outdoor management development” (OMD). This method is considered a process of learning. A description of the training environment will be presented in the first part of the session and will include the objectives and benefits of training as well as the process and variety of training methods. The second part will present an inclusive approach to OMD by discussing its basic characteristics and the different types that exist as well as the associated goals, process of learning, and impact of OMD.

Theories and models of OMD and its evaluation process will be discussed as well.

The main perception of OMD stems from the empirical experience that OMD programs are rarely used in organizations and companies in Greece. When Greek companies implemented an OMD program, they did not seem to have an in-depth understanding of it and therefore didn’t value its significance as an effective training tool. This perception rose from the fact that organizations required the provider (an outdoor company) to plan the training activities and recommend a trainer from the field of a business consultant. Most of the time, the trainer covers the theoretical body of knowledge without being concerned about the experiential part of the training. This often leads to a gap between the theory taught and the path of learning that takes place through the outdoor session. Then follows the generalized debriefing session that includes questions about each team’s performance in the training session. However, in this learning process, the observation of the trainer is limited and effective feedback after each training activity is overlooked. By analyzing the core issues of the training process and covering the unique nature of outdoor management development programs, we stand to gain a better understanding of the power of OMD for the organizations that apply this method of training.


Employers invest in employee training as a method to meet a need or solve a problem within the organization. Due to increasing internal competition in today’s economy, companies must empower their employees and develop their skills to maximize productivity and profit. The fast-moving, ever-changing global economy calls for a new work order and requires a flexible, multi-skilled, knowledgeable, and adaptable workforce at all levels.

Traditional training has provided the knowledge, facilities, and teaching of the skills necessary to perform a job well. Employee development, however, focuses on preparing an employee for employment in the future. Kennedy (2004) listed some of the specific benefits that arise from employee training, such as increased profits, higher productivity rates, lower turnover rates, and increased company loyalty. Centron and Davies (2005) also suggest that lifelong learning is nothing new; it’s simply a way of life. Companies that can provide diverse, cutting–edge training will have a strong recruitment advantage over competitors that offer fewer opportunities for employees to improve their skills and knowledge base.


According to Dressier (2003), a five-step training and development process is recognized as being useful for any organization.

Step one is to complete a need analysis in which the organization identifies the necessary skills for its employees, analyzes the current skill base, and develops specific training objectives. Some typical methods of gathering information for the training needs are, as Stredwick (2001) reports: questionnaires, data research, individual and team interviews, evaluations of performance, written tests, observations, recording critical cases, and completing analyses of duties and organizational strategies.

Step two involves planning the actual training program, and this may be done internally or externally using an external training provider such as a university or consultancy firm.

Step three refers to the validation in which the organization is able to confirm that the training program developed adequately satisfies the need analysis.

Step four is the implementation of the program. This may vary from a one-day process to as long as it takes.

The fifth and final step is the training evaluation. War, Allan, and Bird (1999) reported four control stages for the final evaluation of training:

a) The reaction of the employees, referring to their degree of satisfaction.

b) The degree of learning: the level of acquisition and comprehension of values, knowledge, information, and skills.

c) The change of behavior as the edge in the work environment is considered more important.

d) The performance results, including measurements of the effects on productivity, profit, retirement rates, and the cost of production.


Phidelia Johnson is a global Human Resources Practitioner with eighteen years of leadership success. With a focus on streamlining Human Resources administration, she’s well-equipped to find the right solution to a myriad of concerns. Her experience as a commercial business leader gives her a unique ability to advocate for both the employer and the employee.

In her down time, Phidelia is a master of her kitchen, creating wonderful dishes filled with passion and flavor. If she’s not cooking delicious food, she’s stretched out with a good book. She hopes to use her experience to help others, guide company leaders to best practices, and help build better professionals and stronger organizations.

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